Essential Dynamics in conjunction with the USDA, US Forest Service, universities, and industries, from around the world, will be bringing many more variations of nanocellulose materials that are specific to individual industries.We are currently offering CNC & CNF for you to purchase and experiment with, for your own specific applications and products. Most 21st century products will contain nanomaterials to enhance their durability and performance. We stand ready to enable you to utilize nanomaterials to ensure that you remain, not only competitive, but to lead in this century.
Cellulose Nanofibrils (CNF)
are prepared from woodpulp. The fibrils are isolated from the wood-based fibers using high-pressure homogenizers. The homogenizers are used to delaminate the cell walls of the fibers and liberate the nanosized fibrils. CNF has a high length to width ratio with typical dimensions of 5 to 20 nanometers laterally and several microns, longitudinally. It exhibits the same properties as certain gels or fluids that are thick under normal conditions, but whose flow becomes thin when shaken, agitated, or stressed. When the shearing forces are removed, the gel regains much of its original state.
Cellulose Nanocrystals (CNC)
are formed by the acid hydrolysis of native cellulose fibers using a concentrated inorganic salt. The amorphous sections of native cellulose are hydrolysed and after careful timing, the crystalline sections are retrieved by centrifugation and washing. CNC is highly crystalline (relative crystallinity index above 75%), rigid nanoparticles that are 100s to 1000 nanometers in size. They are rodlike particles with a rectangular cross section. The crystalline dimensions depend on the cellulose material, hydrolysis time, and temperature.
The tensile strength of crystalline cellulose is on the order of 500MPa, (similar to aluminum) with stiffness of 140–220 GPa. This is similar to Kevlar and better than glass fibers (both Kevlar and glass fibers used commercially that are used to reinforce plastics). Nanocellulose films have high strength (over 200 MPa), high stiffness (around 20 GPa) and high strain (12%). Its strength/weight ratio is 8 times that of stainless steel.
Health, safety, and environmental aspects of nanocellulose demonstrate that processing of nanocellulose does not cause significant exposure to fine particles during friction grinding or spray drying. There is no evidence of inflammatory effects or cytotoxicity on mouse or human macrophages that are observed after exposure to nanocellulose. The results of toxicity studies suggest that nanocellulose is not cytotoxic and does not cause any effects on inflammatory system in macrophages. Nanocellulose is not acutely toxic to Vibrio fischeri in environmentally relevant concentrations.
Nancellulose has so many applications that we have not even begun to scratch the surface. Since it is a derivate of wood, the applications extend to the countless places that we have utilized wood. Wood has been an essential ingredient in practically every industry and in most products. Even though nanocellulose is rather new, there is already a growing list of ways that nanocellulose can enhance products. It has been shown to be great for reinforcing plastics, thermosetting resins, starch-based matrixes, soy protein, rubber latex, polylactide. The composite applications may be used for coatings, films, paints, foams, and packaging. Below are highlighted some of the many applications of nanocellulose.
Paper & Paperboard
Hygiene & Absorbent Products
- Paper and paperboard manufacture
- Enhancement of fiber-fiber bond strength
- Barrier in grease-proof type of papers
- Wet-end additive to enhance retention
- Dry and wet strength in commodity type of paper and board products
- Super water absorbent incontinence pads material
- Super absorbent polymers, tissue, non-woven products
- Antimicrobial films
- Emulsion and dispersion
- Oil in water applications
Medical, Cosmetic & Pharmaceutical
- Producing fillings, crushes, chips, wafers, soups, gravies, puddings
- Food additives
- Possible low calorie replacement for carbohydrate additives used:
- thickeners, flavor carriers and suspension stabilizers
- Coating agent in cosmetics (hair, eyelashes, eyebrows, nails)
- Freeze-dried nanocellulose aerogels
- Sanitary napkins, tampons, diapers, wound dressing
- Dry solid nanocellulose composition (tablets) for treatment of intestinal disorders
- Nanocellulose films for screening of biological compounds and nucleic acids encoding a biological compound
- Aerogels/foams (homogeneously or in composite formulations)
- Packaging applications (replacement of polystyrene-based foams)
- Hydrocarbon fracturing of oil-bearing formations
- Oil recovery applications (fracturing fluid)
- Non-settling suspensions for pumping sand, coal, drilling muds
- Activate the dissolution of cellulose in different solvents
- Regenerated cellulose products(fibers films, cellulose derivatives)
- Tobacco filter additive
- Organometallic modified nanocellulose in battery separators
- Speaker membranes
- Reinforcement of conductive materials
- High-flux membranes
- Flexible electronic displays
- Computer components
- Lightweight body armor and ballistic glass
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